Relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms in studies conducted in Turkey: a meta-analysis study
Engin Karadag, Nihan Solpuk
Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences 2018;31:163-176
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Article No: 4   Article Type :  Research
Objective: This meta-analysis study aimed to test the relationship between depression and anxiety symptoms by analyzing the studies on depression and anxiety symptoms in Turkey. The study was carried out in two stages to determine the effect of depression sypmtoms on the anxiety sypmtoms, and the moderators that could affect the mean effect size obtained in this study.

Method: In order to determine the studies that will be included in the meta-analysis, a search was made in the National Higher Education Council’s National Thesis Center, ULAKBIM Social and Humanities Database, ULAKBIM Medical Data Base and Google Academic Database. In this phase, all studies including depression and anxiety were recorded by using the terms related with anxiety and depression. The screening process was reduced to title, keyword and summary fields to create study pool (143 studies). Subsequently, with the detailed examination of studies, 74 studies were excluded and 69 studies were included in the sample in accordance with the study criteria. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) was calculated as the effect size in the analysis and the random effect model was used.

Results: In the study, the mean effect size depression on anxiety was calculated as 0.53, with a lower limit value of 0.48 and an upper limit value of 0.58. In addition, there was a difference between the size of effect observed in the study and the size of the virtual effect generated according to the random effects model aimed to correct the effect caused by the publication bias.

Conclusion: Confidence intervals of 69 studies included in meta-analysis study were narrow, meaning that the decisions which will be made taking into consideration the data obtained from these studies are reliable. It has been found that depression has a positive effect on a wide range of anxiety. According to these findings, as depression levels increase, anxiety levels also increase, or as depression levels decrease, anxiety levels decrease. Overall, moderator variables of anxiety type, anxiety scale, and depression scale affect the relationship between depression and anxiety of individuals. Anxiety and depression levels can vary according to these moderator variables.
Keywords : Anxiety, depression, effect size, meta-analysis, random effect
Türkiye’de yapılan çalışmalarda depresyon ve kaygı ilişkisi: Bir meta-analiz çalışması
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Makale No: 4   Makale Türü :  Araştırma
Amaç: Bu meta-analiz çalışmasında; Türkiye’de depresyon ve kaygı belirtileri üzerine yapılan araştırmaların analizi amaçlamış olup depresyon ve kaygı belirtileri arasındaki ilişki test edilmiştir. Çalışma iki aşamada gerçekleştirilmiştir. Birinci aşamada depresyon belirtilerinin kaygı belirtileri üzerine olan etkisi ve ikinci aşamada ise çalışmada elde edilen ortalama etki büyüklüğünü etkileyebilecek moderatörler belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.

Yöntem: Meta-analize dâhil edilecek çalışmaları belirlemek için, Yükseköğretim Kurulu Ulusal Tez Merkezi, ULAKBİM Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Veri Tabanı, ULAKBİM Tıp Veri Taban ve Google Akademik Veri Tabanında kaynak taraması yapılmıştır. Bu aşamada, kaygı, anksiyete ve depresyon terimleri kullanılarak, tarama işlemi başlık, anahtar kelime ve özet alanlarına indirgenerek depresyon ve kaygıyla ilgili bütün çalışmalar kaydedilerek çalışma havuzu (143 araştırma) oluşturulmuştur. Daha sonra çalışmalar detaylı bir incelemeye tabi tutularak 74 çalışma kapsam dışı bırakılmış olup, çalışma ölçütlerine uygun 69 çalışma örneklemi oluşturmuştur. Analizlerde etki büyüklüğü olarak Pearson Korelasyon Katsayısı (r) hesaplanmış ve rassal etki modeli kullanılmıştır.

Bulgular: Çalışmada depresyonun kaygı üzerindeki ortalama etki büyüklüğü değeri 0.53 olarak hesaplanırken alt sınır değeri 0.48, üst sınır değeri ise 0.58 olarak saptanmıştır. Ayrıca çalışmada gözlenen etki büyüklüğü değeri ile yayın yanlılığından kaynaklanan etkiyi düzeltmeye yönelik rassal etkiler modeline göre oluşturulan sanal etki büyüklüğü arasında farklılık saptanmıştır.

Sonuç: Çalışmada meta-analize dâhil edilen 69 araştırmaya ait güven aralıklarının dar olması, bu araştırmalara ilişkin elde edilen verilere dayalı olarak verilecek kararların güvenilir olduğu anlamına gelmektedir. Çalışmada depresyonun kaygı üzerinde geniş düzeyde pozitif etkiye sahip olduğu saptanmıştır. Bu bulgulara göre, depresyon düzeyleri arttıkça kaygı düzeyleri de artmaktadır ya da depresyon düzeyleri azaldıkça kaygı düzeyleri de azalmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın bulgularına genel olarak bakıldığında, kaygı türü, kaygı ölçeği, depresyon ölçeği moderatör değişkenleri bireylerin depresyon ve kaygı ilişkisini etkilemektedir. Kaygı ve depresyon düzeyi bu moderatör değişkenlere göre değişebilmektedir.
Anahtar kelimeler : Kaygı, depresyon, etki büyüklüğü, meta-analiz, rassal etki
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